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Garbage Truck

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Transportation Equipment
Rear Loader Garbage Truck
A garbage truck, also known as a trash truck, refuse truck, or sanitation truck, is a vehicle used to collect, compact, and transport garbage.

Contents

[edit] History/How it Works/Types

[edit] Open Body Garbage Trucks

The earliest garbage trucks appeared in Europe around 1915. These designs were very basic—nothing more than an open body dump truck with a hydraulic arm to tilt the body for dumping. Having exposed garbage lead to problems with spillage, unpleasant odors, and rodents. It was also physically exhausting for workers who had to lift garbage cans above their shoulders to load the truck.[1]

Sanitation Workers Operate a Side Loader

[edit] Covered Body Garbage Trucks

Covered body garbage trucks were introduced to address these problems. First appearing in the early 1920’s, covered body garbage trucks featured a leak-proof steel body, with an opening on top of the body for workers to dump the garbage. This resulted in reduced spills, odors, and vermin numbers; however, workers were still required to lift loads above their shoulders to reach the opening.[2]

[edit] External Hopper Garbage Trucks

To ease the physical requirements of being a garbage man, external hopper garbage trucks were developed. These trucks use external hoppers attached to a set of hydraulic arms. Garbage men only needed to lift to waist-level to load the hopper; then the hydraulic arms lifted the hopper and dumped the load through an opening at the top of the body. The Heil Co. released the first hopper truck in 1929. It had a hopper on the side of the truck. Later models had their hoppers at the rear of the vehicle. The main disadvantage of hopper trucks was that their hoppers needed to be emptied frequently or else spills and smells would become an issue. Also, garbage was simply piled into the truck body; there was no way to evenly distribute the load, resulting in wasted volume in the truck body.[3]

[edit] Rotary Loader Garbage Trucks

The first attempt to distribute garbage within the truck body came in the late 1920’s when the first rotary loaders became available. Rotary loaders featured a fixed rear hopper. Garbage men would dump garbage into this hopper, where the trash was fed towards the front of the truck body via a screw conveyor.[4]

[edit] Rear Loader Garbage Trucks

The most well-known modern garbage truck is known as a rear loader. It was first introduced by Garwood Industries in 1938. Rear loaders operate with a fixed rear hopper and a hydraulic compacting plate. The compacting plate scoops garbage from the rear hopper and pushes it to the front of the truck, compressing as it goes. The ability to compact while driving doubled the payload achievable with previous trucks. To dump its load, the truck's tailgate is lifted, and then the entire body of the truck is tilted hydraulically; allowing the garbage to slide out the back.[5]

[edit] Side Loader Garbage Trucks

Front Loader Garbage Truck Dumps Dumpster
The next evolution in garbage truck design came in 1947. The Pak-Mor Manufacturing Corp. of San Antonio introduced a side loader truck. The side loader featured a door on the side of the truck body, near the cab. Workers dumped garbage into the side door, then a hydraulically powered steel panel would compact the garbage toward the rear of the truck. To dump its load, the truck’s tailgate was lifted and the steel panel would push the entire contents of the body right out the back of the truck. The main advantage of this type of truck was that it didn’t need to be tilted in order to dump its load. However they never gained favor like the rear-loader because they were unable to handle bulky objects like furniture.[6]

[edit] Front Loader Garbage Trucks

After the rear loader and the side loader, it was only a matter of time until engineers dreamed up the front loader. Popularized in the early 1970’s, front loaders are the type of garbage truck commonly seen emptying commercial dumpsters today. A front loader operates by approaching a dumpster, engaging it with hydraulic arms, lifting the dumpster above the truck body, and dumping the contents through an opening. With the content in the truck body, a panel compacts the trash toward the rear of the truck. When it comes time to empty the body, the tailgate is lifted, and the compacting plate pushes the contents out.[7]

[edit] Common Manufacturers

[edit] References

  1. Covered Bodies. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  2. Covered Bodies. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  3. External Hopper Trucks. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  4. Rotary loaders. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  5. Rear Loaders. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  6. Side Loaders. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].
  7. Front End Loaders. Tigerdude.com [December 16, 2009].