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International, formerly known as International Harvester Co. is a subsidiary trucking company owned by Navistar International Corp. It specializes in producing commercial brand trucks, mid-range diesel engines, IC brand school buses, and Workhouse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans.[1]

International also provides privately designed and manufactured diesel engines for trucking industries.

The Agricultural division of International Harvester Co. became acquired by J.I. Case and was renamed Case IH. Case IH was owned by the parent company Tenneco and now belongs to CNH Global.

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] The Reaper Business

International owes its roots to Cyrus McCormick. McCormick, along with the help of Jo Andersson, a slave living on his farm,  built the first mechanical reaper in 1830.[2]

Following this development, McCormick established a company under the name McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. in Chicago, Illinois in 1848. His invention won him a Gold Medal at London's Crystal Palace in 1851.[3]

This success led McCormick to open McCormick Reaper Works in 1851, a company that went on to produce 4,000 reapers a year.

[edit] Establishing IHC

McCormick Works joined forces with Deering Harvest Co. in 1902, resulting in the birth of the International Harvester Co., or IHC. The arrangement was that Cyrus McCormick, Jr., Charles Deering, George Perkins, and J.P. Morgan would have equal say in the voting. Morgan was responsible for the consolidation deal. Together, they represented approximately 90 percent of the grain binder industry. In just four short years, IHC entered the tractor industry, completing its first tractors within 2 years.

In the early 1900s, the company had many developments. Of the most notable are the IHC Friction Drive tractor, made with the help of IHC's stationary gas engine and a Morton chassis.[4]

The Titan and Mogul were also introduced in 1910, with more than 113 tractors put into production.[5] The Titan tractor was given the name of a Greek mythological god who was "of gigantic size and enormous strength." The tractor's size and strength helped establish a reputation for IHC as having bigger and stronger tractors than competitors.[6]

By 1919, IHC had developed the first power take-off (PTO) for commercial use.

[edit] Farmall Tractors (IHC)

Bert Benjamin was responsible for building the first row crop tractor, a machine that was patented as the Farmall Regular. It was a significant development in the industry of agriculture with its lightweight design and ratio of power to weight.

IHC started production of the Farmall tractors and a second set in the line, the Letter Series, was rolled out on August 9, 1939. It included A and B, which were used for small sizes, H for medium sizes, and M was designed for large size tractors.[7]

The first spindle cotton picker  was built and produced by IHC in 1943. The Old Red was put on display with the Farmall tractor H at the Smithsonian.

The New Number Series Farmall replaced the Letter Series in 1954. The Farmall and International 706 and 806models, which included horsepower, appeared in 1962. Less than three years later, the Farmall and International 1206 arrived on the scene. It was the first tractor for crop row, with considerable horsepower measured at 100.[8]

[edit] Axial Flow

The Axial Flow is one of IHC's most significant developments. The combines were produced in 1977 as models 1440 and 1460. The axial flow allowed for easier threshing and graining, and the combines' fewer parts made them easier to maintain. This development saw other equipment manufacturing companies using the rotary combine in their machinery prototypes.

In 1980, IHC produced the 2 + 2 row crop articulated tractor. In this case, the driver's seat was located on the back half of the tractor.[9]

[edit] Steiger Family

John Steiger and his sons, Douglas and Maurice also contributed to IHC's success when they first built the Steiger tractor in 1957 to 1958. The production came about when the family needed a tractor with a more powerful horsepower than existed. Their creation, weighing in a 15,000 pounds, was used on their farm for at least 10 years.

Unable to stay ahead in a tough economy, Steiger Tractor Inc. filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 1986. Tenneco Inc. bought the plant, which at the time was also the parent company of Case IH.[10]

[edit] Other Steiger Models

The Farmall International 66 Series, containing a six-cylinder engine, was produced in 1971.[11]

The 68 Series, comprising V8 engines, consisted of two models: the 1468 and 1568.

The Steiger Panther 2000 tractor, introduced in 1982, had a 12-speed powershift transmission, electronic controls, and PFC hydraulics.

STX500 Steiger Quadratic  tractor in 2003, produced by Tenneco Inc., broke the World Plowing record. It plowed 792 acres (320 ha) of land in one day.

[edit] War-time Production

Like most other companies in the industry around the Second World War, IHC produced a massive defense production in response to Pearl Harbor. It produced 1,300 crawler tractors for Army and Navy, as well as for export to Allies between 1939 and 1941 alone. In 1942, production doubled that amount.

[edit] Agriculture and Farming: Case IH

International Harvester became two separate companies over time. While Navistar concentrates on transportation vehicles, the agriculture and farming industry in which International became so well known branched into a division of another subsidiary company: Case IH.

Case IH is the result of an acquisition of International Harvester by J.I. Case, decided upon by the U.S. Justice Department in 1985. Case IH has developed many products, including the Magnum tractor in 1988, the first red 1900 Series IH Steiger tractor, and the MX270 in 2000. The MX500 successfully plowed 792 acres (320 ha) in 24 hours.[12]

Case IH produced the Module Express 625 with the view of harvesting cotton and was the first commercial machine built to do so.

[edit] Transport Division (International division of Navistar)

In 1950, IHC reintroduced cabovers, previously discontinued during the war, into its product line. But this time it was different -- the models now comprised a hood that draped over the cab's front. This was intended to assist items that required higher maintenance, such as the radiator, battery, and oil and air filters. The purpose was to make any subsequent repairs much simpler.[13]

IHC introduced Scout, an SUV sports vehicle intended for the commercial market.[14]

The V-8 Series consisted of three new diesel engines, all of which hit the market by 1966. The DVT-550 was primarily used for trucks medium to heavy in nature while trucks like the Fleetstar and the DVT-573 made reputations for themselves as the standard type of engine in the cabover models.

[edit] Becoming Navistar

After 155 years in the farming industry, IHC combined into one subsidiary, Navistar, in 1986, with a view of focusing on trucks and engines. The company was renamed [[Navistar International Corp.].[15]

[edit] Developments and Expansion

The new company went on to produce a new 1.9 gallon (7.3 L) engine, weighing only 150 pounds (68 kg) more than the typical gasoline engine.

Feeling pressure from other companies' product offerings, International decided to revamp its line in 2001. The company developed the Next Generation Vehicle, or NGV. It was a fleet of high performance trucks in the medium duty platform. The 4000 Series model was rolled out over the course of two years, with the 7000 and 8000 Series following suit.

International teamed up with a German company, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, and together they devised a plan to expand the growth of their companies. They worked to create, produce, and manufacture parts and systems for diesel engines and trucks.

In the same year, April 2004, International signed an agreement with the United States Postal Service. The contract involved the delivery of more than 1,700 medium duty service trucks.

The company also built a set of hybird electric vehicles (HEV), utility trucks for Class 6. It produced 24 different types at a Navistar plant in Springfield, Ohio. Customers were given the option, after one year, to keep their trucks as hybrid electric or to return to diesel.[16]

[edit] Recent Years

International has produced a number of noteworthy models in recent years. In 2006, it revealed the MaxxForce, a brand introduced globally for highway engines.

The Prostar was also unveiled in 2006 and was popular for its highest fuel economy and the lowest associated ownership costs.

The Lonestar is the most recent development. It has a grille that was inspired by the D Series, a series that debuted shortly after the First World War. Its features include a fuel economy compared to that of an aero tractor, and up to 15 percent better than other featured long nose conventionals. It has received praise for its original style and unique features.[17]

[edit] The Company Today

International, a subsidiary of Navistar Corp., is a leader in the production of medium and heavy trucks, as well as severe service vehicles. The company is comprised of almost 1,000 dealers in the U.S., Canada, Brazil, and Mexico, in addition to more than 60 dealers in 90 countries worldwide.

[edit] Equipment List

[edit] References

  1. About Us. International Trucks. 2008-09-22.
  2. History. Navistar. 2008-09-22.
  3. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  4. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  5. About Us. Navistar. 2008-09-22.
  6. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  7. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  8. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  9. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  10. About. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  11. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  12. About Us. Case IH. 2008-09-22.
  13. About. International Trucks. Navistar. 2008-09-22.
  14. McCormick Trucks. Wisconsin History. 2008-09-22.
  15. International Trucks. Navistar. 2008-09-22.
  16. International Trucks. Navistar. 2008-09-22.
  17. International Trucks. Navistar. 2008-09-22.

[edit] External Links