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2003 Dynapac CC122 Tandem Vibratory Smooth Drum Roller
Rollers are used to compact loose foundation, such as soil, gravel, asphalt, and bituminous materials and are primarily used for construction or agriculture applications. The rolling process ensures that foundations are compacted thoroughly so the materials are solid and do not come loose.

Rollers, although their purpose has remained the same since their introduction in the 18th century to today, have many different features that help them obtain an accurate level of soil compaction.[1]

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] Early Rollers

The existence of rollers is thought to derive from the agricultural industry, where horse-drawn rollers were used to carry large or heavy items. They were revolutionized with the advent of the steam traction engine, a mobile engine that was used in the late 18th century. The steam traction engine owes its existence mostly to Thomas Savery who patented it in 1698. This type of engine utilized pressurized steam to force water into a shaft that was controlled with the use of valves. To further this invention, Nicholas Cugnot, a French Military engineer created a self-propelling version used for towing military goods.

Farms were the first to use traction engines, particularly in Great Britain; however, these were not self-propelling, requiring the use of horses, and they were used to haul items onto public highways.[2]

2002 Hamm GRW18 8-wheel Pneumatic Roller

[edit] Steam Rollers

This paved the way for steam rollers, which can be traced back to France as early as 1860 and used throughout Europe, and in particular for construction in India in 1863. The first manufacturer to produce rollers was a company owned by Thomas Aveling in 1865. By 1880, the steam roller had evolved into a three-wheeled configuration.

Other manufacturers started to produce these rollers, including Eddison's, Allen's & Buncombes, but their use declined in the 1930s and came to a halt in 1950s England.

[edit] Motor Rollers

The use of motor rollers can be dated back to the 1900s when a contractor from Paris decided to insert a single oil cylinder engine into a roller, creating a prototype that would be followed by other firms. These motor rollers were powered by gasoline and could be divided into two types: a slow running cylinder engine and a high-speed engine.

These engines were replaced by ones that ran on diesel and with World War II looming, the use of roller designs and types picked up a fast pace as manufacturing companies began to see how they factored into construction and building.

[edit] Features/How it Works

[edit] Parts of a Roller

Rollers generally consist of basic features such as a diesel engine, a canopy to protect the driver, drum(s), which can be a vibratory smooth drum or a static smooth drum, tires, a compaction meter to measure the level of compaction and a water system.

[edit] Types

The type of roller that is required for an application usually depends on the type of materials being used, their moisture and how much weight or pressure is required to compact them.

[edit] Static Weight Rollers/ Smooth Wheel Roller

This type of roller has a single axle roller with a smooth steel cylinder that is "ballasted with sand or water to increase its self-weight". The roller compacts the materials on the ground by pushing the soil up in the direction of the movement. In self-propelled machineries, the soil encounters less disturbance and is usually more stable than if it is "pulled".[3]

[edit] Three-wheeled Roller

1992 Dynapac CS15 Three Drum Roller
The three-wheeled roller is best for compacting bituminous material in thin layers, leaving below 164 yards (150 m) unstable. It has a wide roller in the front of the machine and two narrower rollers in the rear. Most of these types focus on steering the front drum and have drives located in the back rollers. It is most effective for compacting bituminous materials on road surfaces and is effective because of its ability to cover a large surface area of ground. Ridge formations are avoided by the overlapping of the rear rollers with the front one.

[edit] Rubber Tire Roller

A self-propelling machine, the rubber-tire roller is best for compacting large fills and working on loamy soil.

[edit] Rolling Method

This technique is unique to avoid unstable foundations when rollers are compacting around curves and bends of the site. The wheels have couplings and a swivel that enable them to move the weight onto each tire. The use of overlapping tires ensure that the full area is covered. Formations for this type of vehicle are usually arranged with seven tires (three in the front and four in the back), or nine tires (four in the front and five in the back). The tires in the front cover the areas around turns that are most affected by ridges. This method is highly beneficial to workers because they allow them to alter the weight of the rollers, use a designated set of wheels with the added option of changing the tire width and manipulating the covered area by changing tire pressures.

[edit] Sheep's Foot Roller

The sheep's foot roller, given the name after an observer commented that the pattern left behind looked like a herd of sheep had passed by.  The sheep's foot can be used on different types of soils and have different shapes of feet to allow for the best compaction according to soil type. It's best used with cohesive materials and covers small surface areas, compensating the small size for high pressure. Once compaction is acheived, it is referred to as "walking out of the fill".[4]

[edit] Tow Behind Roller

Tow behind rollers are designed to be pulled behind a tractor or some other machine. They can be either smooth drum or padfoot.

[edit] Vibratory Smooth Drum Roller

Smooth drum rollers are used to compact sand, gravel, and asphalt with vibration. They are used mostly in roadbuilding applications.

[edit] First Types of Rollers

  • 1918, Aveling & Porter, a five nominal horsepower, 10-ton single cylinder road roller called Hallas
  • 1919, Aveling & Porter, a five nominal horsepower, 10-ton single cylinder road roller called George
  • 1923, Aveling & Porter, eight-ton road road roller, Olivia
  • 1926, Aveling & Porter, six nominal horsepower, 10-ton road roller
  • 1926, Aveling & Porter 4 nominal horsepower, 10-ton road roller, Viatect
  • 1948, Aveling-Barford, 10-ton single cylinder, Omega[5]

[edit] Common Manufacturers

[edit] Additional Photos

1965 Ammann NS12.5N Roller
1985 Bros SP4000 9-wheel Roller
1997 Caterpillar PF300B 7-wheel Pneumatic Roller
1999 Dynapac CC12 Tandem Vibratory Smooth Drum Roller
Ammann AV23 Tandem Vibratory Roller

[edit] References

  1. Harris, F. Modern Construction Equipment Methods. Longman Scientific Technical: New York, 1989. 81-85.
  2. Aveling-Barford. Steam-up. 2008-09-09.
  3. Harris, F. Modern Construction Equipment Methods. Longman Scientific Technical: New York, 1989. 81-85.
  4. Harris, F. Modern Construction Equipment Methods. Longman Scientific Technical: New York, 1989. 81-85.
  5. Aveling-Barford. Steam-up. 2008-09-09.